Look at Some Accident Statistics
is the main source of superstition, and one of the main sources of cruelty.
To conquer fear is the beginning of wisdom. —Bertand Russell
There is a lot of really good information out there and I wanted
this to be a compilation of all that great stuff. All motorcycle safety instruction
starts out with a look at data and there is a good reason for this: Safe riding
is controlled risk management, and to do that, you have to understand your
risks. Unfortunately, the data that's out there is manipulated. The ongoing
argument about whether or not states should have laws requiring riders to
wear helmets has caused some problems in locating honest data about motorcycle
accident statistics. Like other arguments that become political, people twist
the data to promote their agenda. (Figures don't lie, but liars figure) Unfortunately,
you will find numbers that vary considerably and it is hard to determine which
numbers to believe.
There are only 3 states with no helmet laws. To learn about
laws and restrictions in your state, you can visit this web site: http://www.bikersrights.com/states/50state.html
Let it be known here and now that I am not pushing an agenda, I’m simply
trying to get the facts out. Yes, I have an opinion and will not keep it a
secret. When you choose to ride that motorcycle instead of drive the car (or
truck) you have chosen to walk along the edge of the abyss.
Our streets and highways have large chunks of steel weighing thousands of
pounds that are traveling at high velocity. This is extremely dangerous for
our frail human bodies and your decision to get out of a cage and ride that
bike has increased your chances of death or injury by a very significant factor.
If you are putting yourself out on those streets, it is only a matter of time
before you are involved in an accident.
One might argue that it is possible to eliminate the risk by using sound
judgment, second guessing all the other drivers actions, and never placing
yourself in a high-risk situation. (Always leave yourself an option out) But
let’s get real: you’re putting yourself out there where shit happens.
It is true that you certainly can minimize your risk, but you can’t
eliminate it, and eventually, shit will happen to you. Look at the stats,
it's only a matter of time. When it does happen, you will want to have on
your helmet and all your protective gear.
For this reason, I wear a helmet and would like to see all riders wear one,
but- and this is a big ‘but’- you have already chosen to walk
along the edge of the abyss, and increase your odds of death by about 40 times
when you chose the bike over the car or truck. Now if you want to back away
from the edge of that abyss and bring those chances of dieing down to more
like X30 (instead of X40) by wearing a helmet, then that’s up to you.
In a nutshell, I think wearing protective gear is smart, but should not be
mandated by law. The decision to ride the bike is yours and so is the decision
to wear (or not wear) the protective gear. This is an argument that’s
been going on for years and I know it will not go away soon, nor will it be
solved here, so… on with the data: The following data has been gathered
from several different sources. I tried to list the sources of the data where
I could. I also tried to condense it and put it a format that is easy to understand.
When motorcycles crash, their riders lack the protection of
an enclosed vehicle, so they're more likely to be injured or killed. The
federal government estimates that per mile traveled in 2005, the number
of deaths on motorcycles was about 37 times the number in cars (for miles
traveled) and the number of serious injuries were about 6 times higher.
The Insurance businesses, the federal and state governments all compile
data on traffic accidents, but that data that doesn't agree, and you can
find that same statement with different numbers. It is, however, plausible
to assume that your chances of death or serious injury on the roadways increase
significantly when you step outside the protection of a cage. (car or truck)
Research published in 1995 shows that five crash types account for 86 percent
of fatal motorcycle crashes: motorcycle runs off road (37 percent), motorcycle
or other vehicle runs traffic control (18 percent), car turns in front of
motorcycle (12 percent), head on (11 percent), and motorcycle goes down
in roadway (7 percent).
Insurance companies data has been used to draw the following conclusion:
Helmets are about 36 percent effective in preventing motorcyclist deaths
and about 67 percent effective in preventing brain injuries. An unhelmeted
rider is 40 percent more likely to suffer a fatal head injury compared with
a helmeted rider. During the past decade several states have repealed or
weakened their helmet laws. Repealing or weakening helmet laws so they don't
apply to all riders has been followed by increases in deaths. In contrast,
benefits return when helmet laws applying to all riders are reinstated.
Again, keep in mind that when a conclusion is made one way or the other
with regard to helmet laws, you have to be suspicious of their numbers.
Nevertheless, I think it is safe to assume that the conclusion they are
arriving at here (wearing a helmet improves your chances of survival in
an accident) is supported by the available data.
The following facts are based on analysis of data from the US Department
of Transportation's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Their most
recent stats are from 2006.
In 2006, motorcycle rider fatalities continued their nine-year increase,
reaching 4,810 (a 5% increase from 2005) and exceeding the number of pedestrian
fatalities for the first time since the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) began collecting fatal motor vehicle crash data in
1975. In 2005, the motorcycle fatality rate was 73 per 100,000 registered
motorcycles. By comparison, the fatality rate in the same year for passenger
vehicles per 100,000 registrations was 14.
Between 1997 and 2005, motorcycle registrations have jumped
63 percent, from 3,826,373 in 1997 to 6,227,146 in 2005. But fatalities
have increased disproportionately to the rise in registrations and sales.
Motorcycle fatalities have increased each year from a low of 2,116 in 1997
to an all-time high of 4,810 in 2006. The proportion of motorcycle fatalities
increased to 11 percent of all motor vehicle traffic crash fatalities in
2006 from 5 percent in 1997. Younger (20-29) motorcycle riders continue
to account for the highest number of fatalities each year, but motorcyclists
over 40 have seen the greatest increases in fatalities from 1997 to 2006.
The percentage increases between 1997 and 2006 in fatalities by age group
are as follows: Under 20 (42%), 20-29 (86%), 30-39 (80%), 40-49
(172%), 50-59 (307%), Over 59 (280%). Notice that
the greatest increases occurred in the older age groups, clear evidence
that the boomers are taking to two wheels. And doing so with tragic results
in too many instances.
They have identified the following major characteristics of
motorcycle crashes which are worth noting here.
* The majority of motorcyclists killed were White/Caucasian
(77%), followed by African-American (9%), Hispanic (7%), and Native American
(1%). • In 2005, 27 percent of all fatally injured motorcycle operators
had BAC levels of .08 g/dL. An additional 7 percent had lower alcohol levels
(BAC .01 to .07 g/dL). • Forty-one percent of the 1,878 motorcycle
operators who died in single vehicle crashes in 2005 had BAC levels of .08
g/dL or higher. Sixty-one percent of those killed in single-vehicle crashes
on weekend nights had BAC .08 g/dL or higher.
* Forty-five percent of fatally injured motorcyclists did not wear helmets.
* Twice as many motorcycle fatalities occurred on weekends as opposed to
* The majority of those killed in motorcycle-related crashes were motorcycle
operators (90%), while motorcycle passenger fatalities have been constant
at 10 percent for several years.
* Over the last ten years, 90 percent of motorcyclists killed were male.
* Motorcyclists are more likely to be killed in crashes involving more than
one vehicle; 55 percent were killed in multi-vehicle crashes, while 45 percent
were killed in single vehicle crashes.
* Nearly one out of four motorcycle operators (24%) involved in fatal crashes
were operating their vehicles with invalid licenses at the time the collision.
* The largest number of motorcycle fatalities (41%) is still in the 501-1,000
cc engine size group, followed by 38 percent in the 1,001-1,500 cc engine
* Two-thirds of motorcyclists killed on 1,001-1,500 cc engine size motorcycles
were riders over 40.
* There were increases in motorcycle fatalities between 1997 and 2006 for
each engine size group, but the largest increase was for motorcycle operators
with engine sizes ranging from 1,001-1,500cc.
The focus of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to solve the problem
is to pass restrictive laws and enforce them heavily. That is evidenced
by the following U.S. DOT summary:
"Behavioral countermeasures are continuously being applied in
an effort to reduce motorcycle crashes and their resulting injuries and
fatalities. Enforcement activities are in place to interdict individuals
who violate speed limits, reduce impaired riding, and encourage helmet use
laws, as well as state licensing guidelines and requirements. Efforts to
encourage participation in sanctioned riding classes and the acquisition
of State required motorcycle license endorsements occurs through cooperative
agreements with professional organizations and States that work with NHTSA
to address driver licensing and vehicle registration issues."
Reading this summary, you can clearly see that they intend to solve the
problem of increased motorcycle fatalities by passing laws and issuing tickets.
They do mention "encourage participation in riding classes", but
it is difficult for me to see how they have "encouraged participation".
I do know it is much easier to go out and get issued a citation in my state
than it is to get enrolled in an MSF advanced rider course. The U.S. DOT
is definitely pro-state helmet laws. There is more information you can read
at the NHTSA
If you're interested in looking at raw numbers, a breakdown of much of
this data can be found at the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety web
Another issue for consideration is highway design and guardrails.
If you are planning on traveling on a highway, guardrails, which are designed
to protect automobile occupants, present a unique problem to motorcycles.
One in eight motorcyclists who encounters a guardrail is killed, a fatality
risk over 80 times higher than for car occupants involved in similar collisions.
Highway engineers have been building safer roadways for cars at the expense
of motorcycle riders. Guardrails, grooves cut for drainage, spreading loose
gravel on the shoulders of roads, and sloppy cold asphalt patches are just
a few things done on our roadways which enhance automobile safety but tend
to be more hazardous for motorcycles.
The following is a list of 50 “summary findings” from the “Hurt
Report” done in the 1980’s at the University of Southern California
which analyzed data to determine causality of motorcycle crashes. The Hurt
Report was very extensive and is widely quoted even though it is more than
25 years old. I think these findings are still valid and worthwhile for
your consideration. Keep in mind, they are 'summary conclusions'.
1. Approximately three-fourths of these motorcycle accidents involved collision
with another vehicle, which was most often a passenger automobile.
2. Approximately one-fourth of these motorcycle accidents were single vehicle
accidents involving the motorcycle colliding with the roadway or some fixed
object in the environment.
3. Vehicle failure accounted for less than 3% of these motorcycle accidents,
and most of those were single vehicle accidents where control was lost due
to a puncture flat.
4. In single vehicle accidents, motorcycle rider error was present as the
accident precipitating factor in about two-thirds of the cases, with the
typical error being a slide out and fall due to over braking or running
wide on a curve due to excess speed or under-cornering.
5. Roadway defects (pavement ridges, potholes, etc.) were the accident cause
in 2% of the accidents; animal involvement was 1% of the accidents.
6. In multiple vehicle accidents, the driver of the other vehicle violated
the motorcycle right-of-way and caused the accident in two-thirds of those
7. The failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic
is the predominating cause of motorcycle accidents. The driver of the other
vehicle involved in collision with the motorcycle did not see the motorcycle
before the collision, or did not see the motorcycle until too late to avoid
8. Deliberate hostile action by a motorist against a motorcycle rider is
a rare accident cause. The most frequent accident configuration is the motorcycle
proceeding straight then the automobile makes a left turn in front of the
10. Intersections are the most likely place for the motorcycle accident,
with the other vehicle violating the motorcycle right-of-way, and often
violating traffic controls.
11. Weather is not a factor in 98% of motorcycle accidents.
12. Most motorcycle accidents involve a short trip associated with shopping,
errands, friends, entertainment or recreation, and the accident is likely
to happen in a very short time close to the trip origin.
13. The view of the motorcycle or the other vehicle involved in the accident
is limited by glare or obstructed by other vehicles in almost half of the
multiple vehicle accidents.
14. Conspicuity of the motorcycle is a critical factor in the multiple vehicle
accidents, and accident involvement is significantly reduced by the use
of motorcycle headlamps (on in daylight) and the wearing of high visibility
yellow, orange or bright red jackets.
15. Fuel system leaks and spills were present in 62% of the motorcycle accidents
in the post-crash phase. This represents an undue hazard for fire.
16. The median pre-crash speed was 29.8 mph, and the median crash speed
was 21.5 mph, and the one-in-a-thousand crash speed is approximately 86
17. The typical motorcycle pre-crash lines-of-sight to the traffic hazard
portray no contribution of the limits of peripheral vision; more than three-fourths
of all accident hazards are within 45deg of either side of straight ahead.
18. Conspicuity of the motorcycle is most critical for the frontal surfaces
of the motorcycle and rider.
19. Vehicle defects related to accident causation are rare and likely to
be due to deficient or defective maintenance.
20. Motorcycle riders between the ages of 16 and 24 are significantly over
represented in accidents; motorcycle riders between the ages of 30 and 50
are significantly underrepresented. Although the majority of the accident-involved
motorcycle riders are male (96%), the female motorcycles riders are significantly
over represented in the accident data.
21. Craftsmen, laborers, and students comprise most of the accident-involved
motorcycle riders. Professionals, sales workers, and craftsmen are underrepresented
and laborers, students and unemployed are over represented in the accidents.
22. Motorcycle riders with previous recent traffic citations and accidents
are over represented in the accident data.
23. The motorcycle riders involved in accidents are essentially without
training; 92% were self-taught or learned from family or friends. Motorcycle
rider training experience reduces accident involvement and is related to
reduced injuries in the event of accidents.
24. More than half of the accident-involved motorcycle riders had less than
5 months experience on the accident motorcycle, although the total street
riding experience was almost 3 years. Motorcycle riders with dirt bike experience
are significantly underrepresented in the accident data.
25. Lack of attention to the driving task is a common factor for the motorcyclist
in an accident.
26. Almost half of the fatal accidents show alcohol involvement.
27. Motorcycle riders in these accidents showed significant collision avoidance
problems. Most riders would over brake and skid the rear wheel, and under
brake the front wheel greatly reducing collision avoidance deceleration.
The ability to countersteer and swerve was essentially absent.
28. The typical motorcycle accident allows the motorcyclist just less than
2 seconds to complete all collision avoidance action.
29. Passenger-carrying motorcycles are not over represented in the accident
30. The driver of the other vehicles involved in collision with the motorcycle
are not distinguished from other accident populations except that the ages
of 20 to 29, and beyond 65 are over represented. Also, these drivers are
generally unfamiliar with motorcycles.
31. Large displacement motorcycles are underrepresented in accidents but
they are associated with higher injury severity when involved in accidents.
32. Any effect of motorcycle color on accident involvement is not determinable
from these data, but is expected to be insignificant because the frontal
surfaces are most often presented to the other vehicle involved in the collision.
33. Motorcycles equipped with fairings and windshields are underrepresented
in accidents, most likely because of the contribution to conspicuity and
the association with more experienced and trained riders.
34. Motorcycle riders in these accidents were significantly without motorcycle
license, without any license, or with license revoked.
35. Motorcycle modifications such as those associated with the semi-chopper
or cafe racer are definitely over represented in accidents.
36. The likelihood of injury is extremely high in these motorcycle accidents-98%
of the multiple vehicle collisions and 96% of the single vehicle accidents
resulted in some kind of injury to the motorcycle rider; 45% resulted in
more than a minor injury.
37. Half of the injuries to the somatic regions were to the ankle-foot,
lower leg, knee, and thigh-upper leg.
38. Crash bars are not an effective injury countermeasure; the reduction
of injury to the ankle-foot is balanced by increase of injury to the thigh-upper
leg, knee, and lower leg.
39. The use of heavy boots, jacket, gloves, etc., is effective in preventing
or reducing abrasions and lacerations, which are frequent but rarely severe
40. Groin injuries were sustained by the motorcyclist in at least 13% of
the accidents, which typified by multiple vehicle collision in frontal impact
at higher than average speed.
41. Injury severity increases with speed, alcohol involvement and motorcycle
42. Seventy-three percent of the accident-involved motorcycle riders used
no eye protection, and it is likely that the wind on the unprotected eyes
contributed in impairment of vision which delayed hazard detection.
43. Approximately 50% of the motorcycle riders in traffic were using safety
helmets but only 40% of the accident-involved motorcycle riders were wearing
helmets at the time of the accident.
44. Voluntary safety helmet use by those accident-involved motorcycle riders
was lowest for untrained, uneducated, young motorcycle riders on hot days
and short trips.
45. The most deadly injuries to the accident victims were injuries to the
chest and head.
46. The use of the safety helmet is the single critical factor in the prevention
of reduction of head injury; the safety helmet which complies with FMVSS
218 is a significantly effective injury countermeasure.
47. Helmeted riders and passengers showed significantly lower head and neck
injury for all types of injury, at all levels of injury severity.
48. The increased coverage of the full facial coverage helmet increases
protection, and significantly reduces face injuries.
49. Valid motorcycle exposure data can be obtained only from collection
at the traffic site. Motor vehicle or driver license data presents information
which is completely unrelated to actual use.
50. Less than 10% of the motorcycle riders involved in these accidents had
insurance of any kind to provide medical care or replace property.
Here's one more conclusion that has been drawn from more current data that
is not mentioned in the Hurt Report: Most crashes happen to new, inexperienced
riders, or riders who are riding bikes they are not familiar with.
I hope all this doom and gloom doesn't keep from enjoying biking, but as
I stated at the start, a little shock at the first might make you take safety
Return to Home Page
Chapter 1. Let's Look at Some Data
Chapter 2. Risk Management
Chapter 3. Two Wheeled Physics
Chapter 4. Countersteering: Cornering Techniques
Chapter 5. Gravity Is a Good Thing
Chapter 6. Gyroscopic Precession: Nature's
Chapter 7. Braking: Weight Transfer and Maximum Performance
Chapter 8. Controlling Slides and Tank Slappers: Mind
Chapter 9. Group Riding
Chapter 10. Riding Etiquette
Chapter 11. MSF Courses- Editorial